If you want to discover your genetic history and where you came from... you’ve found the right place!


review of scientific and news articles on dna testing and popular genetics

Richard III's New Winter of Discontent

Tuesday, February 19, 2013

Shakespeare painted the last of the York rulers of England as a murderous maniac who was rightly dispatched to hell by Henry Tudor in 1485. But the story of Richard III's skeleton supposedly dug up last year in a parking lot may top that of the Bard for pulling the wool over our eyes. Or it may be the luckiest archeological find since King Tut . . . . 

The last of the York dynasty was buried in Greyfriars, Leicester, but Britons are now talking about re-interring the bones believed to be Richard's in Westminster Cathedral with England's other beloved monarchs. In 2012, a writer from Edinburgh, Philippa Langley, was walking over a particular spot in the municipal parking lot when she got goosebumps and "absolutely knew I was walking on his grave." Langley helped fund an archeological excavation and on February 4, 2013, the University of Leicester confirmed that a skeleton found in the excavation was, "beyond reasonable doubt," that of Richard III, based on a combination of evidence from radiocarbon dating, comparison with contemporary reports of his slight frame, and a comparison of his mitochondrial DNA with two matrilineal descendants of Richard III's eldest sister, Anne of York. 

Hunches and Hunchbacks

According to a BBC article, “Richard III: The Twisted Bones that Reveal a King,” the skeleton had a “striking curvature” that could only be that of the hunchback king. But according to a Daily Beast article, “Unraveling King Richard III’s Secrets,” Shakespeare wrote a century after the fact and had a pro-Tudor, anti-York political agenda. “Portraits made after his defeat that show Richard with a hump- or at least uneven shoulders- are suspect as Tudor propaganda.” There is no historical evidence of Richard III having a “striking curvature” of the spine. Or even “uneven shoulders.”  There is no evidence beyond Shakespeare of his deformity. In fact, there is historical evidence to the contrary. The article, “Richard’s Comeback,” quotes the historian, Thomas More, as saying Richard III was of “bodily shape comely enough, onely (sic) of low stature.” The Countess of Desmond reported that, at a royal ball, Richard was the ‘“handsomest man in the room . . . except for his brother, Edward, and was very well made." 

Despite historical evidence, most articles that discuss remaining doubts about the case like, “Doubts Remain that the Leicester body is Richard III,” miss this point and take it as a historical fact that Richard III had scoliosis as does the skeleton that has been found in the parking lot.

What of historical depictions of Richard III’s face? “No portraits made during his lifetime have survived  and some later copies show signs of having been altered to make him appear more sinister” (“ Richard III: The Twisted Bones”). Nevertheless, a 3D scan of the skull was taken, and a 3D face created and painted. Ashdown –Hill is quoted as telling the BBC in the article, “Richard III Facial Reconstruction Reveals Slain King More than 500 Years After His Death,”that it “largely matched” the “prominent features” in posthumous representations of the king. The artist, Janine Aitken said her part was “interpretive not scientific.” At least it is a pleasant face. But is it Richard III’s face?

Jumping to Forensic Conclusions

And the skeleton includes 10 battle wounds showing Richard III “met a violent death…”eight to the head and two to the body—which they believe were inflicted at or around the time of death. Since he died in a battle, did not other soldiers meet untimely wounds in such a manner?

Not a few scientists are waiting for peer-reviewed results. But there are none. Instead of waiting for a boring academic conference, the sponsors at the Richard III Society chose to release the results via a Hollywood style press conference. 

What kind of DNA analysis was used? Mitochondrial DNA. According to Bryony Jones in his CNN article, “Body Found under Parking Lot is King Richard III, Scientists Prove,” “the mitochondrial DNA extracted from the bones was matched to Michael Ibsen, a Canadian cabinetmaker and direct descendant of Richard III’s sister, Anne of York, and a second distant relative who wishes to remain anonymous.” Well, end of story and close that book. Right? Not so fast. Some scientists believe that the testing done was not sufficient. Why?

Mitochondrial DNA has limitations. It does reflect the deepest ancestry [see The Seven Daughters of Eve by Bryan Sykes], but is also prone to contamination [under such circumstances]( Pappas). Especially when we are discussing skeletons reminiscent of Night of the Living Dead interred improperly for centuries in damp soil. Timothy Bestor, Professor of Genetics and Development at Columbia University Medical Center, is quoted in the NY Academy of Sciences article, “Skeletal Remains of King Richard III Reportedly Discovered,” as saying that the possible quality of the [mitochondrial] DNA [under the given circumstances] was one of his key reasons for skepticism. “’After 500 years or more in a wet environment like England’s, “‘the microbes are going to degrade the DNA. It’s just food to them, ‘” says Dr. Bestor.  And Pappas quotes Maria Avila, a computational biologist at the Center for GeoGenetics at the Natural History Museum as saying, “The DNA results presented today are too weak, as they stand, to support the claim that [the] DNA [sample] is actually from Richard III…more in depth DNA analysis summed to the archaeological and osteological [bone analysis] results would make a round story [She is requesting Autosomal DNA analysis akin to what was done with the hominin discovery of the Denisovans].”  And she wonders about contamination with the type of DNA testing that was done. Avila says that, “Before being convinced of ANY atDNA study, it should be explicit that all possible cautions were taken to avoid contamination” and … “ also warned that people could share mitochondrial DNA even if they share a family tree” ( Pappas). The article, “Doubts Remain that the Leicester Body is Richard III,” a Mark Thomas at University College London is quoted as saying that “people can have matching mitochondrial DNA by chance and not be related.”

And Bestor asserts there other reasons to be skeptical, even though “Richard Buckley, lead archeologist from the University of Leicester, asserts ‘“this is beyond reasonable doubt’” based on genetic and historical forensic evidence.” Bestor argues that beyond the high risk of sample contamination, there are three other “particularly complicating factors.”  Of course, it is often an overlooked fact that “the English aristocracy reproduced within a closed gene pool in order to preserve lineages. This inbreeding results in consanguinity” (“Skeletal Remains of King Richard III”).  Dr. Bestor is quoted as saying, “ You may have the same mitochondrial haplotype, but that does not guarantee a lineal descent from a given individual.” [ Mitochondrial DNA analysis is not the same as Y haplotype DNA analysis because it focuses on deeper ancestry whereas male haplotype DNA analysis is linked to more recent male lines ]. He also points out the possibility of adoption. [The possibility of an adoption or any type of non-paternity event increases as one delves back into the distant past of any family tree]:

Another confounding factor is that, in the 17-25 generations separating King Richard’s sister from her extant relatives, there is a fair chance that children of deceased parents’ may have been adopted by their parents’ siblings somewhere along the way. After all, medieval lives were short. Such adoptions may have been kept private and excluded from historical or genealogical records. 


Moreover, Bestor points out that the “genetic sequences and statistical data are yet to be released” but adds that the “historical evidence is quite compelling.” According to this article, forensic evidence of the bones (1455-1540)matches with the time that Richard III was to have died ( 1485). But didn’t many people die at this same time during the same battle with similar wounds?

Astonishing or Unbelievable? Watch the University of Leicester's Full Press Conference 


Please tell us what you think

Name, website, and email are optional; if we publish your comment, your name will be shown, and may be linked to your website if provided, but the email you enter will not be published.

Captcha Image



When Wales Was Jewish

Monday, April 02, 2012

Short answer: pre-Roman times.

As is well known, Haplogroup E1b1b1 accounts for approximately 18% to 20% of Ashkenazi and 8.6% to 30% of Sephardic Y-chromosomes. This North African type appears to be one of the major founding lineages of the Jewish population.[i]

In Britain, this quintessential Jewish type (together with J, another telltale sign of Middle Eastern roots) is absent or negligible in many towns and regions but reported in elevated frequencies in Wales (Llanidloes 7%, Llangefni 5%), the Midlands (Southwell, Nottinghamshire 12%, Uttoxeter 8%), Faversham in Kent (9%), Dorchester in the West Country with historic harbors (7%), Midhurst in West Sussex commanding ancient sea-ports (5%)  and the Channel Islands, always an important crossroads of influences (5%).[ii] Bryan Sykes’ survey of paternal clans in England and Wales confirms significant traces of the E haplogroup which he dubs Eshu in southern England (4.9%) and Wales (3.1%).[iii] It reaches its highest point in Britain in Abergele, Wales (nearly 40%), an anomaly that has been attributed to Roman soldiers of Balkan origin but may have alternative and more complex explanations.

See our blog post "Right Church, Wrong Pew," arguing that the footprint of E in Britain is attributable to North African influence, not the descendants of Roman legionnaires from the Balkans.

In 2011, Llangefni  and Wrexham in North Wales became the focus of a call for local men to provide samples of their unusual DNA. A team of scientists lead by Andy Grierson and Robert Johnston from the University of Sheffield hoped to link the migration of men from the Mediterranean to the copper mined at Parys Mountain on Anglesey and on the Great Orme promontory nearby. A preliminary analysis of 500 participants showed 30% of the men carried E1b1b, compared to 1% of men elsewhere in the United Kingdom.[iv]

Significantly, Welsh tradition associates the Iron Age hilltop town on Conwy Mountain known as Castell Caer Seion with a settlement of ancient Jews. This site overlooks Conwy Bay on the north coast of Wales and lies on the ancient road between Prestatyn in Denbighshire and Bangor in Gwynedd opposite Angelsey.  In the Black Book of Caermarthen, the Welsh national bard Taliesin casually remarks in the persona of the battling hero,

When I return from Caer Seon,

From contending with Jews,

I will come to the city of Lleu and Gwidion.[v]

Lleu and Gwidion are the names of two other legendary figures; they are believed to be historical and to have lived in the early centuries of the Common Era or anterior to it.

It is hard to avoid the thought that the hilly area to the west of the town of Conwy, in North Wales was once inhabited by Jews.

[i] A. Nebel et al, "The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East", American Journal of Human Genetics69.5(2001) 1095–1112. [ii] C. Capelli et al, “A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles,”  Current Biology 13 (2003) 979–984. [iii] Bryan Sykes, Saxons, Vikings and Celts (Norton:  2007) 206, 290. [iv] “’Extraordinary’ Genetic Make-up of North-east Wales Men,” BBC News North East Wales, article retrieved Jan. 2012 at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-north-east-wales-14173910. On Dienekes’ Anthropology Blog there is speculation about whether the main sub-clade involved is Balkan or North African E; posts and comments retrieved Jan. 2012 at http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2011/07/eastern-mediterranean-marker-in.html. [v] William F. Skene, The Four Ancient Books of Wales (Edinburgh, 1868, republished 2007 by Forgotten Books) 206.

Stephen Blevins commented on 03-Apr-2012 05:02 AM

My DNA is E1b1b1, my most distant ancestor is William Blevins (Longhunter) from the area you mentioned. My autosomal DNA places my ancestors in the orkney islands of Scotland. I'm convinced that a tribe of Jews migrated from Israel to north to Scandinavia
or Denmark and may have been apart of the invasion by Vikings to Scotland before they were found in Wales as Poweys in the Northern Mountains. Blevins comes from Blethyn meaning little wolf or (Hero) look up Ap Blethyn of Gwynedd.

Belvins Descendant commented on 12-Apr-2012 02:05 PM

I was always told the Blevins came from Wales, but in checking this story out I was unable to verify it, nor could I find any substantiation of the etymology from Bleddyn ("son of wolf"). There is not a single Blevins in the Welsh census records, although
the name is found sparsely in Cheshire, Lancashire and other northern English counties. "Formby, Wales" is actually Formby in Merseyside in Lancashaire. The -dd- element in the Welsh name Bleddyn cannot be twisted into a -v-. So go figure.

Paul commented on 28-Apr-2012 08:46 PM

My mother is a descendant of Henry Cook I of Devon. His ascendants were among the first settlers of Massachusetts and Connecticut. A great Uncle, Lemuel Cook, was the oldest surviving Revolutionary War veteran when he died at 106 years of age. We recently
had my mother's autosomal dna analyzed and found strong population matches from the Balkans (Croatia, Bosnia, Macedonia, Serbia, etc.) - which was very unexpected. There was also prominent representation form Spain and Portugal - not so unexpected. In my own
18 marker test, I had one Jewish III marker, though I can't say from whom. There is no known Judaism on either side. Sounds like your article might be describing the early Cooks. Interesting...

katarina cadieux commented on 13-Dec-2013 07:36 PM

well the language of the Welsh(Cymri)alone is very Hebraic.
here are some examples: Anudon(welsh)/ Aen Adon(hebrew)(without God)
Yni all sy-dda(welsh) / Ani El Saddai(hebrew)(I am almighty God)
Llai iachu yngwyddd achau ni(welsh) / Loa yichei neged acheinu(hebrew) ("Let him not live before our brethren")
An annos(welsh)/ ain ones(hebrew)(None did compel)
the amazing to me is how similar the words look and sound, the english is the meaning for both welsh and hebrew, their meaning are the same.
the welsh are a very ancient people even their name for themselves in their language has Crimea roots which many hebrew tribes migrated to.

Dafydd Gwilym W. Gates commented on 17-Feb-2014 11:58 AM

Katarina Cadieux 13 Dec 2013 wrote some examples to show how Welsh had parralels in Hebrew. I'm a first language Welsh speaker and couldn't make sense of the Welsh examples, I'm afraid, It wasn't Welsh.
So sorry, Dafydd

Jamie commented on 25-Aug-2014 11:15 AM

I am not surprised that Jewish (Hebrew) DNA is found in Great Britain. If people read the Bible correctly and believe what it says, they will find that when the Israelites (not Jews) went into captivity for the last time as a nation,(2,000 years ago), God sent them to the northwest, "To the Isles in the sea".

Joan Coon Deary commented on 28-Nov-2014 11:15 AM

Being female, I had my brother's DNA identified by Familytree. His Haplogroup is E1b1b1. Our male-line genealogy goes back to Dutchess County, New York, around 1775 -- all Christians as far as I can tell. There are many other people who have our surname of "Coon" and they also have had their DNA identified by Familytree. Their Haplogroup begins with an "R". Can I say definitively that we are not related to them even though they have the same surname? Am I right in thinking that is it impossible for a Haplogroup to morph from an "R" to and "E" in the course of 250 years? I've always wondered if our original surname was "Cohen" that was changed to "Coon" at some point -- but I don't think you can help me with that. Thank you for any information you can give me. Regards, Joan Coon Deary

Please tell us what you think

Name, website, and email are optional; if we publish your comment, your name will be shown, and may be linked to your website if provided, but the email you enter will not be published.

Captcha Image



Recent Posts


Timothy Bestor Genex Diagnostics Chuetas Micmac Indians Mary Settegast Paleolithic Age Silverbell Artifacts Zizmer Sinti Virginia genealogy Alia Garcia-Ureste Denisovans Daniel Defoe Rush Limbaugh haplogroup L Early Jews and Muslims of England and Wales (book) Irish history Genome Sciences Building Phoenicians University of Leicester Washington D.C. DNA security Y chromosome DNA archeology population genetics Ukraine Holocaust Database Maya Cherokee Freedmen Life Technologies ethnicity Horatio Cushman Wendy Roth Jewish novelists Richmond California Jan Ravenspirit Franz Phoenix Louis XVI Barack Obama Asian DNA Stan Steiner Richard Dewhurst B'nai Abraham genetics rock art Zuni Indians Cherokee DNA Columbia University Amy Harmon single nucleotide polymorphism DNA Fingerprint Test Philippa Langley population isolates ethnic markers Barnard College Douglas C. Wallace rapid DNA testing Jack Goins Cree Indians Celts New York Academy of Sciences Mexico Smithsonian Institution pipe carving Alabama IntegenX Wikipedia ged.com Nature Genetics personal genomics Scientific American William Byrd Promega Michael Grant art history Sorbs Lithuania evolution Tom Martin Scroft Pomponia Graecina Indian Territory 23andme Joseph Jacobs climate change Melungeon Movement Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Ananya Mandal Bradshaw Foundation peopling of the Americas Henry IV Asiatic Fathers of America Mucogee Creeks cancer Sasquatch China Chromosomal Labs Bode Technology Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Richard III Odessa Shields Cox Middle Eastern DNA DNA magazine Taino Indians Beringia Sinaloa anthropology Freemont Indians Victor Hugo District of Columbia Patagonia Waynesboro Pennsylvania haplogroup J Egyptians Hohokam Indians Bill Tiffee Mark Thomas Hispanic ancestry Bryan Sykes Romania Central Band of Cherokees Israel, Shlomo Sand American history Jon Entine haplogroup Z Gunnar Thompson Ireland Tennessee Panther's Lodge Great Goddess Penny Ferguson Russia Thruston Tablet Genie Milgrom Chris Stringer Stephen Oppenheimer Maronites Anne Marie Fine James Stritzel university of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Pueblo Grande Museum mutation rate private allele National Museum of Natural History Khoisan Science Daily, Genome Biol. Evol., Eran Elhaik, Khazarian Hypothesis, Rhineland Hypothesis Cooper surname Central Band of Cherokee linguistics African DNA haplogroup T Irish Central surnames Fritz Zimmerman Tifaneg Kurgan Culture Charles Perou Richard Lewontin race consanguinity Ancient Giantns Who Ruled America John Wilwol prehistoric art haplogroup C Y chromosomal haplogroups DNA Diagnostics Center haplogroup G Germany megapopulations Sizemore surname Peter Martyr GlobalFiler pheromones b'nei anousim haplogroup B autosomal DNA Cajuns haplogroup D BBCNews Britain Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma Arabic Black Irish familial Mediterranean fever Miguel Gonzalez Les Miserables Colin Pitchfork forensics haplogroup N Sizemore Indians Gravettian culture India Gregory Mendel Cohen Modal Haplotype Jewish contribution to world literature cannibalism MHC The Nation magazine Abenaki Indians Caucasian Isabel Allende Sonora Majorca Neolithic Revolution North Carolina Michael Schwartz David Reich clan symbols Slovakia Joel E. Harris Donald N. Yates Chris Tyler-Smith Robinson Crusoe history of science New Mexico INORA Pueblo Indians Hertfordshire Scotland Kentucky Daily News and Analysis genealogy origins of art powwows Nadia Abu El-Haj Keros Jewish genetics Hadassah Magazine Choctaw Indians Mildred Gentry Bigfoot Shlomo Sand Antonio Torroni Kennewick Man haplogroup E Family Tree DNA Marie Cheng Nephilim, Fritz Zimmerman Indo-Europeans aliyah Irish DNA Austro-Hungary Bryony Jones polydactylism Hopi Indians Old Souls in a New World Lebanon DNA Forums crypto-Jews Kari Carpenter PNAS Neanderthals occipital bun Alec Jeffreys genetic determinism Algonquian Indians Jesse Montes gedmatch Sea Peoples prehistory Myra Nichols French Canadians Peter Parham Nancy Gentry Nature Communications Tucson crosses breast cancer King Arthur, Tintagel, The Earliest Jews and Muslims of England and Wales Zionism Kate Wong Gustavo Ramirez Calderon Olmec bloviators Elizabeth DeLand Melungeon Heritage Association Kitty Prince of the Bear River Athabaskans haplogroup H Douglas Owsley Salt River Science magazine Elizabeth C. Hirschman Marija Gimbutas Cismaru health and medicine Stacy Schiff mummies BATWING Eske Willerslev Tintagel haplogroup M Moundbuilders Belgium Cave art Abraham Lincoln horizontal inheritance El Castillo cave paintings Discovery Channel clinical chemistry Henriette Mertz Jim Bentley Middle Ages haplogroup X When Scotland Was Jewish Jewish GenWeb Thuya Rafael Falk religion Patrick Henry human leukocyte antigens M. J. Harper Comanche Indians metis Dienekes Anthropology Blog Riane Eisler X chromosome Solutreans Rebecca L. Cann far from the tree Native American DNA Test Sam Kean Altai Turks Mohawk Discover magazine Hawaii Nayarit HapMap Ron Janke First Peoples Telltown Douglas Preston Anglo-Saxons Phillipe Charlier ancient DNA Monya Baker NPR FOX News statistics Brian Wilkes Secret History of the Cherokee Indians Elzina Grimwood Joseph Andrew Park Wilson Plato Melanesians Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama Nova Scotia Hohokam Mother Qualla Society for Crypto-Judaic Studies Cismar Cherokee DNA Project hoaxes New York Times Akhenaten Navajo George Starr-Bresette Smithsonian Magazine Satoshi Horai andrew solomon Clovis Albert Einstein College of Medicine Cleopatra Greeks George van der Merwede French DNA Mark Stoneking Jews Colin Renfrew Illumina Juanita Sims bar mitzvah Luca Pagani National Health Laboratories Elvis Presley DNA DNA testing companies Leicester Gypsies New York Review of Books ENFSI CODIS markers Oxford Journal of Evolution American Journal of Human Genetics El Paso giants Rich Crankshaw Sir Joshua Reynolds Phyllis Starnes haplogroup U Grim Sleeper Sarmatians Cancer Genome Atlas Navajo Indians Ancestry.com National Geographic Daily News EURO DNA Fingerprint Test alleles Stony Creek Baptist Church James Shoemaker Arizona Etruscans Bode Technology Oxford Nanopore Anasazi Helladic art oncology Finnish people ethics Rutgers University Population genetics Erika Chek Hayden Normans phenotype Ziesmer, Zizmor Bulgaria Holocaust myths Maui mitochondrial DNA haplogroup R Nikola Tesla Melba Ketchum Magdalenian culture FDA Colima Henry VII John Ruskamp Italy King Arthur Kari Schroeder Arizona State University Teresa Panther-Yates Tutankamun Ostenaco Janet Lewis Crain Ripan Malhi London Khazars Bentley surname research palatal tori haplogroup W Carl Zimmer Melungeon Union Bering Land Bridge Melungeons Roberta Estes methylation Acadians AP Yates surname Dragging Canoe Valparaiso University immunology DNA Fingerprint Test The Calalus Texts Bureau of Indian Affairs North African DNA European DNA medicine Harry Ostrer Michoacan Panther's Lodge Publishers seafaring Chauvet cave paintings Charles Darwin DNA databases family history genetic memory Europe Ashkenazi Jews human migrations Charlotte Harris Reese epigenetics Early Jews of England and Wales Patrick Pynes Richard Buckley Eric Wayner Muslims in American history Harold Sterling Gladwin Arabia Iran Old World Roots of the Cherokee Ethel Cox Cornwall Epigraphic Society Puerto Rico Theodore Steinberg Lab Corp N. Brent Kennedy John Butler Johnny Depp education Tucson Virginia DeMarce Stone Age Roma People Rare Genes corn Basques Native American DNA Black Dutch FBI David Cornish Jews and Muslims in British Colonial America research Turkic DNA microsatellites Russell Belk ISOGG mental foramen Asiatic Echoes Constantine Rafinesque admixture Austronesian, Filipinos, Australoid Wales Anne C. Stone Terry Gross Anacostia Indians genomics labs Svante Paabo Current Anthropology Pima Indians Texas A&M University Jalisco Stephen A. Leon Havasupai Indians Ari Plost Israel England news Wendell Paulson Monica Sanowar Walter Plecker human leukocyte testing hominids Applied Epistemology Gila River Mary Kugler