If you want to discover your genetic history and where you came from... you’ve found the right place!


review of scientific and news articles on dna testing and popular genetics

Richard III's New Winter of Discontent

Tuesday, February 19, 2013

Shakespeare painted the last of the York rulers of England as a murderous maniac who was rightly dispatched to hell by Henry Tudor in 1485. But the story of Richard III's skeleton supposedly dug up last year in a parking lot may top that of the Bard for pulling the wool over our eyes. Or it may be the luckiest archeological find since King Tut . . . . 

The last of the York dynasty was buried in Greyfriars, Leicester, but Britons are now talking about re-interring the bones believed to be Richard's in Westminster Cathedral with England's other beloved monarchs. In 2012, a writer from Edinburgh, Philippa Langley, was walking over a particular spot in the municipal parking lot when she got goosebumps and "absolutely knew I was walking on his grave." Langley helped fund an archeological excavation and on February 4, 2013, the University of Leicester confirmed that a skeleton found in the excavation was, "beyond reasonable doubt," that of Richard III, based on a combination of evidence from radiocarbon dating, comparison with contemporary reports of his slight frame, and a comparison of his mitochondrial DNA with two matrilineal descendants of Richard III's eldest sister, Anne of York. 

Hunches and Hunchbacks

According to a BBC article, “Richard III: The Twisted Bones that Reveal a King,” the skeleton had a “striking curvature” that could only be that of the hunchback king. But according to a Daily Beast article, “Unraveling King Richard III’s Secrets,” Shakespeare wrote a century after the fact and had a pro-Tudor, anti-York political agenda. “Portraits made after his defeat that show Richard with a hump- or at least uneven shoulders- are suspect as Tudor propaganda.” There is no historical evidence of Richard III having a “striking curvature” of the spine. Or even “uneven shoulders.”  There is no evidence beyond Shakespeare of his deformity. In fact, there is historical evidence to the contrary. The article, “Richard’s Comeback,” quotes the historian, Thomas More, as saying Richard III was of “bodily shape comely enough, onely (sic) of low stature.” The Countess of Desmond reported that, at a royal ball, Richard was the ‘“handsomest man in the room . . . except for his brother, Edward, and was very well made." 

Despite historical evidence, most articles that discuss remaining doubts about the case like, “Doubts Remain that the Leicester body is Richard III,” miss this point and take it as a historical fact that Richard III had scoliosis as does the skeleton that has been found in the parking lot.

What of historical depictions of Richard III’s face? “No portraits made during his lifetime have survived  and some later copies show signs of having been altered to make him appear more sinister” (“ Richard III: The Twisted Bones”). Nevertheless, a 3D scan of the skull was taken, and a 3D face created and painted. Ashdown –Hill is quoted as telling the BBC in the article, “Richard III Facial Reconstruction Reveals Slain King More than 500 Years After His Death,”that it “largely matched” the “prominent features” in posthumous representations of the king. The artist, Janine Aitken said her part was “interpretive not scientific.” At least it is a pleasant face. But is it Richard III’s face?

Jumping to Forensic Conclusions

And the skeleton includes 10 battle wounds showing Richard III “met a violent death…”eight to the head and two to the body—which they believe were inflicted at or around the time of death. Since he died in a battle, did not other soldiers meet untimely wounds in such a manner?

Not a few scientists are waiting for peer-reviewed results. But there are none. Instead of waiting for a boring academic conference, the sponsors at the Richard III Society chose to release the results via a Hollywood style press conference. 

What kind of DNA analysis was used? Mitochondrial DNA. According to Bryony Jones in his CNN article, “Body Found under Parking Lot is King Richard III, Scientists Prove,” “the mitochondrial DNA extracted from the bones was matched to Michael Ibsen, a Canadian cabinetmaker and direct descendant of Richard III’s sister, Anne of York, and a second distant relative who wishes to remain anonymous.” Well, end of story and close that book. Right? Not so fast. Some scientists believe that the testing done was not sufficient. Why?

Mitochondrial DNA has limitations. It does reflect the deepest ancestry [see The Seven Daughters of Eve by Bryan Sykes], but is also prone to contamination [under such circumstances]( Pappas). Especially when we are discussing skeletons reminiscent of Night of the Living Dead interred improperly for centuries in damp soil. Timothy Bestor, Professor of Genetics and Development at Columbia University Medical Center, is quoted in the NY Academy of Sciences article, “Skeletal Remains of King Richard III Reportedly Discovered,” as saying that the possible quality of the [mitochondrial] DNA [under the given circumstances] was one of his key reasons for skepticism. “’After 500 years or more in a wet environment like England’s, “‘the microbes are going to degrade the DNA. It’s just food to them, ‘” says Dr. Bestor.  And Pappas quotes Maria Avila, a computational biologist at the Center for GeoGenetics at the Natural History Museum as saying, “The DNA results presented today are too weak, as they stand, to support the claim that [the] DNA [sample] is actually from Richard III…more in depth DNA analysis summed to the archaeological and osteological [bone analysis] results would make a round story [She is requesting Autosomal DNA analysis akin to what was done with the hominin discovery of the Denisovans].”  And she wonders about contamination with the type of DNA testing that was done. Avila says that, “Before being convinced of ANY atDNA study, it should be explicit that all possible cautions were taken to avoid contamination” and … “ also warned that people could share mitochondrial DNA even if they share a family tree” ( Pappas). The article, “Doubts Remain that the Leicester Body is Richard III,” a Mark Thomas at University College London is quoted as saying that “people can have matching mitochondrial DNA by chance and not be related.”

And Bestor asserts there other reasons to be skeptical, even though “Richard Buckley, lead archeologist from the University of Leicester, asserts ‘“this is beyond reasonable doubt’” based on genetic and historical forensic evidence.” Bestor argues that beyond the high risk of sample contamination, there are three other “particularly complicating factors.”  Of course, it is often an overlooked fact that “the English aristocracy reproduced within a closed gene pool in order to preserve lineages. This inbreeding results in consanguinity” (“Skeletal Remains of King Richard III”).  Dr. Bestor is quoted as saying, “ You may have the same mitochondrial haplotype, but that does not guarantee a lineal descent from a given individual.” [ Mitochondrial DNA analysis is not the same as Y haplotype DNA analysis because it focuses on deeper ancestry whereas male haplotype DNA analysis is linked to more recent male lines ]. He also points out the possibility of adoption. [The possibility of an adoption or any type of non-paternity event increases as one delves back into the distant past of any family tree]:

Another confounding factor is that, in the 17-25 generations separating King Richard’s sister from her extant relatives, there is a fair chance that children of deceased parents’ may have been adopted by their parents’ siblings somewhere along the way. After all, medieval lives were short. Such adoptions may have been kept private and excluded from historical or genealogical records. 


Moreover, Bestor points out that the “genetic sequences and statistical data are yet to be released” but adds that the “historical evidence is quite compelling.” According to this article, forensic evidence of the bones (1455-1540)matches with the time that Richard III was to have died ( 1485). But didn’t many people die at this same time during the same battle with similar wounds?

Astonishing or Unbelievable? Watch the University of Leicester's Full Press Conference 


Please tell us what you think

Name, website, and email are optional; if we publish your comment, your name will be shown, and may be linked to your website if provided, but the email you enter will not be published.

Captcha Image



When Wales Was Jewish

Monday, April 02, 2012

Short answer: pre-Roman times.

As is well known, Haplogroup E1b1b1 accounts for approximately 18% to 20% of Ashkenazi and 8.6% to 30% of Sephardic Y-chromosomes. This North African type appears to be one of the major founding lineages of the Jewish population.[i]

In Britain, this quintessential Jewish type (together with J, another telltale sign of Middle Eastern roots) is absent or negligible in many towns and regions but reported in elevated frequencies in Wales (Llanidloes 7%, Llangefni 5%), the Midlands (Southwell, Nottinghamshire 12%, Uttoxeter 8%), Faversham in Kent (9%), Dorchester in the West Country with historic harbors (7%), Midhurst in West Sussex commanding ancient sea-ports (5%)  and the Channel Islands, always an important crossroads of influences (5%).[ii] Bryan Sykes’ survey of paternal clans in England and Wales confirms significant traces of the E haplogroup which he dubs Eshu in southern England (4.9%) and Wales (3.1%).[iii] It reaches its highest point in Britain in Abergele, Wales (nearly 40%), an anomaly that has been attributed to Roman soldiers of Balkan origin but may have alternative and more complex explanations.

See our blog post "Right Church, Wrong Pew," arguing that the footprint of E in Britain is attributable to North African influence, not the descendants of Roman legionnaires from the Balkans.

In 2011, Llangefni  and Wrexham in North Wales became the focus of a call for local men to provide samples of their unusual DNA. A team of scientists lead by Andy Grierson and Robert Johnston from the University of Sheffield hoped to link the migration of men from the Mediterranean to the copper mined at Parys Mountain on Anglesey and on the Great Orme promontory nearby. A preliminary analysis of 500 participants showed 30% of the men carried E1b1b, compared to 1% of men elsewhere in the United Kingdom.[iv]

Significantly, Welsh tradition associates the Iron Age hilltop town on Conwy Mountain known as Castell Caer Seion with a settlement of ancient Jews. This site overlooks Conwy Bay on the north coast of Wales and lies on the ancient road between Prestatyn in Denbighshire and Bangor in Gwynedd opposite Angelsey.  In the Black Book of Caermarthen, the Welsh national bard Taliesin casually remarks in the persona of the battling hero,

When I return from Caer Seon,

From contending with Jews,

I will come to the city of Lleu and Gwidion.[v]

Lleu and Gwidion are the names of two other legendary figures; they are believed to be historical and to have lived in the early centuries of the Common Era or anterior to it.

It is hard to avoid the thought that the hilly area to the west of the town of Conwy, in North Wales was once inhabited by Jews.

[i] A. Nebel et al, "The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East", American Journal of Human Genetics69.5(2001) 1095–1112. [ii] C. Capelli et al, “A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles,”  Current Biology 13 (2003) 979–984. [iii] Bryan Sykes, Saxons, Vikings and Celts (Norton:  2007) 206, 290. [iv] “’Extraordinary’ Genetic Make-up of North-east Wales Men,” BBC News North East Wales, article retrieved Jan. 2012 at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-north-east-wales-14173910. On Dienekes’ Anthropology Blog there is speculation about whether the main sub-clade involved is Balkan or North African E; posts and comments retrieved Jan. 2012 at http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2011/07/eastern-mediterranean-marker-in.html. [v] William F. Skene, The Four Ancient Books of Wales (Edinburgh, 1868, republished 2007 by Forgotten Books) 206.

Stephen Blevins commented on 03-Apr-2012 05:02 AM

My DNA is E1b1b1, my most distant ancestor is William Blevins (Longhunter) from the area you mentioned. My autosomal DNA places my ancestors in the orkney islands of Scotland. I'm convinced that a tribe of Jews migrated from Israel to north to Scandinavia
or Denmark and may have been apart of the invasion by Vikings to Scotland before they were found in Wales as Poweys in the Northern Mountains. Blevins comes from Blethyn meaning little wolf or (Hero) look up Ap Blethyn of Gwynedd.

Belvins Descendant commented on 12-Apr-2012 02:05 PM

I was always told the Blevins came from Wales, but in checking this story out I was unable to verify it, nor could I find any substantiation of the etymology from Bleddyn ("son of wolf"). There is not a single Blevins in the Welsh census records, although
the name is found sparsely in Cheshire, Lancashire and other northern English counties. "Formby, Wales" is actually Formby in Merseyside in Lancashaire. The -dd- element in the Welsh name Bleddyn cannot be twisted into a -v-. So go figure.

Paul commented on 28-Apr-2012 08:46 PM

My mother is a descendant of Henry Cook I of Devon. His ascendants were among the first settlers of Massachusetts and Connecticut. A great Uncle, Lemuel Cook, was the oldest surviving Revolutionary War veteran when he died at 106 years of age. We recently
had my mother's autosomal dna analyzed and found strong population matches from the Balkans (Croatia, Bosnia, Macedonia, Serbia, etc.) - which was very unexpected. There was also prominent representation form Spain and Portugal - not so unexpected. In my own
18 marker test, I had one Jewish III marker, though I can't say from whom. There is no known Judaism on either side. Sounds like your article might be describing the early Cooks. Interesting...

katarina cadieux commented on 13-Dec-2013 07:36 PM

well the language of the Welsh(Cymri)alone is very Hebraic.
here are some examples: Anudon(welsh)/ Aen Adon(hebrew)(without God)
Yni all sy-dda(welsh) / Ani El Saddai(hebrew)(I am almighty God)
Llai iachu yngwyddd achau ni(welsh) / Loa yichei neged acheinu(hebrew) ("Let him not live before our brethren")
An annos(welsh)/ ain ones(hebrew)(None did compel)
the amazing to me is how similar the words look and sound, the english is the meaning for both welsh and hebrew, their meaning are the same.
the welsh are a very ancient people even their name for themselves in their language has Crimea roots which many hebrew tribes migrated to.

Dafydd Gwilym W. Gates commented on 17-Feb-2014 11:58 AM

Katarina Cadieux 13 Dec 2013 wrote some examples to show how Welsh had parralels in Hebrew. I'm a first language Welsh speaker and couldn't make sense of the Welsh examples, I'm afraid, It wasn't Welsh.
So sorry, Dafydd

Jamie commented on 25-Aug-2014 11:15 AM

I am not surprised that Jewish (Hebrew) DNA is found in Great Britain. If people read the Bible correctly and believe what it says, they will find that when the Israelites (not Jews) went into captivity for the last time as a nation,(2,000 years ago), God sent them to the northwest, "To the Isles in the sea".

Joan Coon Deary commented on 28-Nov-2014 11:15 AM

Being female, I had my brother's DNA identified by Familytree. His Haplogroup is E1b1b1. Our male-line genealogy goes back to Dutchess County, New York, around 1775 -- all Christians as far as I can tell. There are many other people who have our surname of "Coon" and they also have had their DNA identified by Familytree. Their Haplogroup begins with an "R". Can I say definitively that we are not related to them even though they have the same surname? Am I right in thinking that is it impossible for a Haplogroup to morph from an "R" to and "E" in the course of 250 years? I've always wondered if our original surname was "Cohen" that was changed to "Coon" at some point -- but I don't think you can help me with that. Thank you for any information you can give me. Regards, Joan Coon Deary

Please tell us what you think

Name, website, and email are optional; if we publish your comment, your name will be shown, and may be linked to your website if provided, but the email you enter will not be published.

Captcha Image



Recent Posts


Gustavo Ramirez Calderon Thuya race Cherokee Freedmen methylation b'nei anousim anthropology Europe Mucogee Creeks Bryony Jones Silverbell Artifacts Zizmer Anasazi population genetics Robinson Crusoe Hohokam Indians Cismar haplogroup M AP mental foramen Carl Zimmer gedmatch Ancient Giantns Who Ruled America Muslims in American history Italy Sorbs Roma People single nucleotide polymorphism American Journal of Human Genetics ENFSI Germany Tifaneg Arizona State University When Scotland Was Jewish French Canadians mitochondrial DNA Tennessee Anglo-Saxons Irish Central cannibalism European DNA DNA magazine Anacostia Indians The Calalus Texts haplogroup Z Ari Plost Science Daily, Genome Biol. Evol., Eran Elhaik, Khazarian Hypothesis, Rhineland Hypothesis Isabel Allende Rich Crankshaw Kari Schroeder Dienekes Anthropology Blog Shlomo Sand evolution Bulgaria Arizona corn Ostenaco pipe carving Secret History of the Cherokee Indians peopling of the Americas Kitty Prince of the Bear River Athabaskans Roberta Estes Virginia DeMarce DNA Fingerprint Test education Mark Thomas Zuni Indians DNA Fingerprint Test Iran Juanita Sims DNA databases N. Brent Kennedy Philippa Langley Mexico Jesse Montes DNA Forums Britain Les Miserables powwows Rare Genes Egyptians King Arthur, Tintagel, The Earliest Jews and Muslims of England and Wales INORA Applied Epistemology familial Mediterranean fever hoaxes Taino Indians Tintagel FOX News North Carolina Black Irish Monica Sanowar University of Leicester ISOGG Sizemore Indians Navajo Indians Washington D.C. Khoisan climate change Pima Indians origins of art Black Dutch Ancestry.com Ethel Cox Salt River DNA Diagnostics Center David Cornish Stacy Schiff Majorca genetics American history Joseph Andrew Park Wilson Nikola Tesla haplogroup N Colin Renfrew Colin Pitchfork population isolates Victor Hugo Nephilim, Fritz Zimmerman Stan Steiner Science magazine alleles Paleolithic Age Horatio Cushman Family Tree DNA Choctaw Indians Panther's Lodge rapid DNA testing Alabama statistics Gypsies Abraham Lincoln horizontal inheritance forensics Society for Crypto-Judaic Studies Elzina Grimwood Freemont Indians John Ruskamp polydactylism ethics personal genomics GlobalFiler Jewish genetics Early Jews and Muslims of England and Wales (book) India Wales prehistoric art Israel, Shlomo Sand Basques bar mitzvah Anne C. Stone Population genetics Ananya Mandal art history Scotland Amy Harmon Slovakia Mary Kugler Kentucky Beringia National Museum of Natural History Hadassah Magazine seafaring Current Anthropology Jack Goins Cave art Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Henry VII health and medicine Pueblo Indians Oxford Journal of Evolution Middle Ages Timothy Bestor history of science Irish history Alia Garcia-Ureste Nova Scotia England David Reich admixture Bill Tiffee mutation rate HapMap Melungeon Union consanguinity haplogroup U King Arthur Marija Gimbutas FBI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute District of Columbia Promega Clovis Abenaki Indians Tucson crosses Hohokam ancient DNA Pomponia Graecina Helladic art Michael Schwartz Erika Chek Hayden university of North Carolina at Chapel Hill crypto-Jews Yates surname Asiatic Fathers of America Penny Ferguson Bureau of Indian Affairs Wendell Paulson Phoenix genetic determinism Thruston Tablet Eske Willerslev haplogroup X Genex Diagnostics archeology human leukocyte antigens El Paso James Stritzel Kari Carpenter Greeks George Starr-Bresette Johnny Depp Luca Pagani Texas A&M University Romania Rutgers University Barack Obama Antonio Torroni Grim Sleeper Early Jews of England and Wales haplogroup W Celts Neanderthals Ukraine Tom Martin Scroft Sir Joshua Reynolds ethnicity National Geographic Daily News Hertfordshire First Peoples Jewish contribution to world literature private allele Maui EURO DNA Fingerprint Test Maya Sinaloa clan symbols Eric Wayner Cooper surname epigenetics Constantine Rafinesque Janet Lewis Crain Daniel Defoe Jon Entine Chuetas Marie Cheng Patrick Henry Riane Eisler Russia Virginia genealogy Hawaii Peter Martyr Phillipe Charlier Charles Perou Harold Sterling Gladwin haplogroup L Elizabeth C. Hirschman El Castillo cave paintings Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma Bradshaw Foundation medicine Wikipedia genetic memory Sea Peoples Mohawk X chromosome Acadians Douglas C. Wallace Panther's Lodge Publishers haplogroup T Richard Lewontin Tucson Gunnar Thompson Michael Grant Alec Jeffreys Nature Genetics Plato haplogroup G Mary Settegast human migrations Daily News and Analysis news Akhenaten Melanesians Ron Janke Harry Ostrer Svante Paabo occipital bun Hopi Indians B'nai Abraham Melungeon Movement Smithsonian Institution research Cree Indians Charlotte Harris Reese Asiatic Echoes 23andme Smithsonian Magazine Patrick Pynes Epigraphic Society Bryan Sykes Colima Chauvet cave paintings Stone Age Douglas Owsley Jewish novelists Brian Wilkes family history genomics labs metis Holocaust Database North African DNA genealogy megapopulations Bentley surname research aliyah Wendy Roth IntegenX NPR Rebecca L. Cann palatal tori Peter Parham Indian Territory Donald N. Yates Bode Technology Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama Native American DNA Charles Darwin Bering Land Bridge Israel Louis XVI breast cancer Moundbuilders human leukocyte testing Michoacan China Etruscans haplogroup E BBCNews hominids Algonquian Indians Maronites Life Technologies Gila River Walter Plecker New York Academy of Sciences Lithuania Y chromosome DNA pheromones Cherokee DNA Project Sasquatch Joseph Jacobs Genome Sciences Building French DNA Dragging Canoe Elvis Presley DNA Illumina Cornwall Richard III microsatellites haplogroup J Belgium Kennewick Man Y chromosomal haplogroups Richmond California Ashkenazi Jews Valparaiso University Olmec Fritz Zimmerman Sinti Chris Stringer haplogroup R Douglas Preston Kate Wong Richard Buckley Melungeon Heritage Association Cleopatra Elizabeth DeLand John Butler mummies Micmac Indians bloviators Anne Marie Fine Miguel Gonzalez Old Souls in a New World Khazars M. J. Harper Jim Bentley Cajuns Nature Communications Rafael Falk haplogroup H ged.com Cherokee DNA BATWING Melungeons Stephen A. Leon Myra Nichols oncology Jewish GenWeb Nancy Gentry Discover magazine Navajo The Nation magazine Bigfoot PNAS andrew solomon haplogroup C surnames Austronesian, Filipinos, Australoid phenotype Hispanic ancestry Old World Roots of the Cherokee Nayarit prehistory Sam Kean Finnish people Lab Corp Tutankamun DNA testing companies Zionism Mother Qualla Gravettian culture Arabia New York Times Mark Stoneking Barnard College DNA security Neolithic Revolution Patagonia National Health Laboratories Comanche Indians Telltown Theodore Steinberg MHC immunology Austro-Hungary Genie Milgrom New Mexico Arabic CODIS markers Pueblo Grande Museum Jews Rush Limbaugh Discovery Channel Waynesboro Pennsylvania religion Gregory Mendel Stony Creek Baptist Church Central Band of Cherokees Melba Ketchum Caucasian Phyllis Starnes Sizemore surname Turkic DNA Nadia Abu El-Haj Henry IV ethnic markers far from the tree Cancer Genome Atlas Asian DNA Normans Native American DNA Test Sarmatians rock art Indo-Europeans New York Review of Books Richard Dewhurst FDA Keros Solutreans haplogroup D autosomal DNA linguistics Lebanon Ziesmer, Zizmor Middle Eastern DNA Havasupai Indians William Byrd Oxford Nanopore Irish DNA Chris Tyler-Smith Altai Turks myths giants African DNA Kurgan Culture Terry Gross Central Band of Cherokee Jalisco Satoshi Horai Ireland Chromosomal Labs Bode Technology haplogroup B Leicester Jan Ravenspirit Franz Russell Belk Ripan Malhi Great Goddess Cohen Modal Haplotype Magdalenian culture London Joel E. Harris Holocaust John Wilwol Stephen Oppenheimer Phoenicians clinical chemistry cancer Puerto Rico Teresa Panther-Yates James Shoemaker George van der Merwede Denisovans Albert Einstein College of Medicine Cismaru Scientific American Odessa Shields Cox Henriette Mertz Mildred Gentry Columbia University Sonora Monya Baker Jews and Muslims in British Colonial America